It was a popular belief that the ancestors of the Filipinos had a poor sense of unity across the archipelago, an easy reason by many, or perhaps a lazy way, in explaining why the precolonial Filipinos were subjugated by the Castilians.
This common belief is about to be tested, for upon review of historical accounts, it can be observed that the sixteenth-century Filipinos, and their nearby nations, had a strong sense of unity in vanquishing the Spanish Empire in the Far East.
THE FIGHT FOR FREEDOM
In 1589, Santiago de Vera, the sixth Spanish governor-general of the Philippines, had written a military report to his Spanish king, Felipe II, that there was an inter-island uprising in their conquered territories as he penned:
“I learned that some chiefs of these islands had intrigued with that people to secure their aid; and that they had plotted together to do this, and had agreed to bring Burney [Brunei] and the kings of Jolo and of Mindanao [Maguindanao], and many other foreigners against this city, in order to rob and kill us.”
— Governor-General Santiago de Vera, July 1589
REVOLT OF THE LAKANS
The chiefs that Governor-General Santiago de Vera pertained were the Tagalog princes, nobles, and freemen of Manila, Tondo, Candaba, Bulacan, Pandacan, Navotas, Taguig, and Quiapo.
THE TAGALOG UNITY
And these native princes had recruited more nobles as far as Bataan, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, and other Tagalog nations along the banks of Pasig River and nearby areas.
THE SOUTHERN ALLIES
The Tagalog noble’s resolve had spread across seas, for the sultanates of Brunei and Sulu, and the royal house of Maguindanao joined their cause to crush the Spanish conquerors.
THE JAPANESE PACT
As for the mentioned foreigners, this was the Japanese, who earlier agreed on expanding the Tagalog forces by bringing samurais, warriors, and armaments. And later on, true to their word, the Japanese came with their forces.
BETRAYAL IN CALAMIANES
Unfortunately, this Tagalog-led uprising failed when Antonio Surabao of Calamianes betrayed them to the Spanish authorities that led to the executions of the Tagalog princes and the banishments of other nobles to Mexico. And four hundred years later, this rebellion was now called the Tondo Conspiracy, Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, or the Revolt of the Lakans.
Surprisingly, in the same letter, Governor-General Santiago de Vera included a rebellion plot that happened in the Visayas shortly:
“After that, in the province of Cubu [Cebu] and in that called the Pintados, the chiefs held a conference, and plotted to kill the Spaniards. The majority of those who took part in this have been imprisoned, and proceedings are being instituted against them.”
— Governor-General Santiago de Vera, July 1589
Like the unfortunate Tagalogs, the Spaniards were able to discover this rebellion plot of the Cebuanos, leading to the execution of the best Visayan warriors and their prince.
CAGAYAN VALLEY UPRISING
Curiously, in that same year of 1589, there was another letter sent to the Spanish king that came from a Castilian official, a licentiate, by the name of Gaspar de Ayala. The licentiate mentioned that their encomienda in Cagayan Valley was under rebellion:
“Four or five months ago two soldiers came from the city of Segovia, located in the province of Cagayan. They were sent by the alcalde-mayor of that province, bringing word that the province was all in rebellion and that the Indians had killed many Spaniards.”
— Licentiate Gaspar de Ayala, July 1589
The natives of Cagayan Valley in Northern Luzon took arms and overran a Spanish fort, killing many Castilians and their encomiendero.
As a result, Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent his Castilian army, and they turned the Cagayan Valley’s vast rice fields and rich coconut plantations into ash.
However, to their shock, the rebels of Cagayan Valley frustrated the Castilians by burning their huts, retreating to the mountains, and leaving their community useless for Spanish use.
One has to understand that Spain was the first global superpower in the sixteenth century. And based on the historical accounts and the same year, we can observe that there was a unifying spirit among the ancient Filipinos and their neighboring allied nations to go against the unstoppable Castilian army in Southeast Asia.
Perhaps it was the Tagalog nobles who inspired, or even planned, an inter-island and countrywide concerted attack against the Spanish Regime in 1589. This is conceivable for all of them were connected in trade: the Tagalogs, the Japanese, the Bruneians, the Tausugs, the Maguindanaons, the Visayans, and even the natives of the Cagayan Valley who had an access to the much coveted Igorot gold, were bartering before the coming of the Castilians.
POINTS TO PONDER
If only the Tagalog princes were not betrayed, imaginably, the greatest Far Eastern forces made by the ancient Filipino kampilan wielders, Bruneian silat masters, and Japanese samurais could have defeated the Spanish Empire in Asia. Nonetheless, based on these historical accounts, we can learn:
- There were regional kingdoms in the precolonial Philippines.
- There was a unified spirit in the fighting for freedom among the premiered kingdoms of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
- War alliances among their neighboring countries were practiced by the ancestors of the modern-day Filipinos.
- Blair, Emma Helen, and Alexander Robertson, eds., The Philippine Islands 1493-1898 (Volumes I–LV). Reprint of the 1903-1909 edition, Michigan Library, 2005. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/philamer.
- Francisco, Carlos. Presentation of Santo Niño in Cebu, 1965. Manila: National Museum of the Philippines.
- Scott, William Henry. The Discovery of the Igorots: Spanish Contacts with the Pagans of Northern Luzon. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 2006.
- Sitoy, T. Valentino Jr. A History of Christianity in the Philippines: The Initial Encounter, Volume 1. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1988.
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